Best Online Casinos With No Deposit Bonuses in South Africa

Step into the thrilling realm of online gambling in South Africa, where you’ll discover the exhilaration of playing at top-notch online casinos with enticing no deposit bonuses. If you’re eager to embark on a virtual gambling adventure without risking your own funds, get ready for an exciting surprise. In this extensive guide, we are delighted to introduce you to the leading online casinos that offer specially crafted free cash bonuses, designed to captivate players in South Africa.

When it comes to finding the finest online casinos with no deposit bonuses, we understand that South African players seek a perfect balance of excitement and value. That’s why we’ve meticulously searched the web to curate a selection of exceptional platforms that offer unmatched gaming experiences and generous rewards, all without requiring any initial deposits from you.

With these enticing no deposit bonuses, you can kickstart your online casino journey with free bonus cash or free spins. This allows you to explore a wide range of thrilling games and potentially win real money, all without risking your own funds. Whether you’re a seasoned player or new to online gambling, these bonuses provide an excellent opportunity to discover different new SA casino sites and games while increasing your chances of hitting those sought-after jackpots.

So, get ready to uncover the very best online casinos with no deposit bonuses, where the possibilities are endless and the excitement is never-ending. Prepare yourself for an exhilarating adventure that combines top-notch gaming with the added benefits of generous bonuses. The world of online gambling in South Africa eagerly awaits your arrival!

best online casinos with no deposit bonuses

South African Casino No Deposit Bonuses

Online CasinoNo Deposit Bonus
ZAR CasinoR150 Free Chip
Springbok CasinoR250 Free Bonus
Thunderbolt CasinoR300 Free Chip
Yebo CasinoR350 Free Bonus
Punt CasinoR200 Free Chip
Europa CasinoR100 Free Bonus
SilverSands CasinoR200 Free Chip
Apollo SlotsR300 Free Bonus
White Lotus CasinoR300 Free Chip
Jackpot Cash CasinoR200 Free Bonus

Exploring the Excitement: Online Casino Bonus No Deposit

A no deposit bonus serves as an enticing promotional offer extended by online casinos to entice new players. This unique perk enables players to reap the benefits of offer funds or free spins without the need to make an initial deposit with their own money. In essence, it grants players a remarkable opportunity to engage in real money games and potentially emerge victorious, all while circumventing the risk of wagering personal funds.

Here are the main criteria typically associated with free cash bonuses:

  • Eligibility: online casino no deposit are typically offered to newly registered players who create an account at an online casino. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting that certain casinos may extend these bonuses to existing players as part of ongoing promotional offers or as a token of appreciation for their loyalty.
  • Registration Requirement: In order to avail themselves of a no deposit bonus, players must complete the registration process at the online casino. This typically involves providing fundamental personal details and creating a unique username and password.
  • Bonus Amount: The amount of the offer can differ between casinos, ranging from a fixed sum of bonus funds to a specific number of free spins. For example, a casino may present a R200 free chip or 50 free spins on a selected slot game as part of their promotional package.
  • Wagering Requirements: No deposit online casino bonuses usually come with specific wagering requirements. These requirements specify the number of times a player must wager the bonus amount before they can withdraw any winnings obtained from it. It is essential to thoroughly review and understand the wagering requirements before accepting a bonus offer.
  • Game Restrictions: online casino bonus no deposit may be limited to specific games or game categories. For example, free spins may only be available for a particular slot or online scratch card game, while bonus funds can be used on various games within the casino’s offerings.
  • Time Limit: online casino bonus no deposit usually have an expiration date. Players need to utilize the offer within a specified time frame, or it will become invalid.

To ensure a seamless and gratifying experience, it is essential to thoroughly peruse the terms and conditions linked to any no deposit bonus. By doing so, players can gain a comprehensive understanding of the bonus’s requirements and limitations. This diligent approach allows individuals to make the most of the offer, optimizing its potential benefits and guaranteeing a pleasurable gaming journey.

The Benefits of Online Casino No Deposit Bonuses

When engaging with online casinos, it is crucial for players to pay careful attention to no deposit. These bonuses, often referred to as online casino no deposit offers, have the potential to greatly enhance the gambling experience and offer numerous benefits. By staying mindful of these bonuses, players can unlock exciting opportunities and elevate their overall enjoyment of online gaming. Here’s why players should give careful consideration to these bonuses:

  • Risk-Free Gambling: Online casino bonuses allow players to engage in risk-free gambling. Without having to deposit their own money, players can explore various games, test different strategies, and experience the thrill of real money gameplay.
  • Try Before You Commit: These bonuses present an exceptional chance to test an online casino without the need for a financial commitment. Players can explore the website’s interface, game selection, and overall user experience, allowing them to gauge if it aligns with their preferences. This valuable opportunity assists players in making informed decisions about whether the platform is the ideal fit for their gaming needs.
  • Win Real Money: Contrary to common misconceptions, online casino no deposit offer the genuine possibility of winning real money. While these bonuses typically come with specific wagering requirements and restrictions, players still have the opportunity to convert their promotion funds into withdrawable winnings. By fulfilling the necessary conditions, players can transform their promotion funds into tangible monetary rewards, adding an extra layer of excitement and potential profitability to their gaming experience.
  • Learn the Ropes: Online casino no deposit provide novice players with a valuable learning opportunity in the realm of online gambling. These bonuses allow players to become acquainted with the mechanics of online gaming, grasp various game rules, and build confidence in their abilities, all without incurring any financial risk. By taking advantage of these promotion, beginners can embark on their gambling journey with a sense of exploration and discovery, honing their skills and knowledge along the way, ultimately setting themselves up for a rewarding and enjoyable gaming experience.
  • Comparison Shopping: In the vast landscape of online casinos, players are presented with a plethora of options, each accompanied by its own set of enticing online casino no deposit. By carefully assessing the terms and conditions, wagering requirements, and bonus amounts associated with these offers, players can engage in informed decision-making. This allows them to select the most favorable deals and effectively maximize their potential winnings. By exercising this level of scrutiny, players can navigate the online casino realm with confidence, capitalizing on the most advantageous opportunities available.
  • Building Trust: Online casino free cash promotion play a pivotal role in fostering trust between players and the casino. These bonuses act as a risk-free incentive, showcasing the casino’s dedication to creating a delightful and equitable gaming atmosphere. By providing such enticing offers, casinos aim to encourage players to return, establish a sense of loyalty, and become valued customers. This gesture not only enhances the overall player experience but also solidifies the trust and rapport between players and the casino, fostering a mutually beneficial relationship built on satisfaction and enjoyment.

In conclusion, online casino casino promotion no deposit offer a multitude of advantages, such as risk-free gambling, the potential to win real money, and the ability to explore diverse casinos and games. By keeping a keen eye on these bonuses, players can fully leverage their online gambling experience and enhance their prospects of achieving success. Embracing these bonuses opens up a world of possibilities, ensuring an engaging and rewarding journey in the realm of online gaming.

Discover the Excitement: SA Casino No Deposit Bonuses

Prepare yourself to unveil the most exceptional no deposit bonus offers in South Africa, as we extend a warm invitation to enhance your online casino experience with these exclusive promotions tailored exclusively for SA players. Through SA casino casino bonus no deposit, you can immerse yourself in the exhilaration of real money games without the need for any initial deposits. It’s the epitome of putting your luck to the ultimate test and exploring a diverse array of top-notch online casinos, all without bearing any financial risk.

These no deposit bonus offers grant players complimentary promotional cash or free spins upon creating an account. Imagine immersing yourself in your favorite online slots real money South Africa or table games without having to spend a single cent! Whether you’re an experienced player or new to online gambling, these bonuses provide an amazing opportunity to explore different platforms and games while having the potential to win real money.

To guide you through the realm of casino bonus no deposit in South Africa, we have carefully curated a handpicked list showcasing the absolute best offers available. From generous free chips to captivating free spin bundles, these promotions grant you a head start on your gaming journey, enabling you to explore new casinos and their enthralling offerings.

Keep in mind that each no deposit promotion has its own set of specific terms and conditions. It is vital to carefully read and understand these requirements before taking advantage of an offer. Now is the ideal time to seize the opportunity presented by the top no deposit bonus offers in South Africa and embark on an unforgettable adventure in the captivating world of online casinos!

Here’s a revised list of online casino brands that offer the best casino bonus no deposit for South African players, along with a short description and information on how to collect the promo:

  1. ZAR Casino – Enjoy the thrill at ZAR Casino with a fantastic SA casino no deposit bonus of R150 Free Chip. Simply sign up and enter the provided promo code during registration to claim this exciting offer.
  2. Springbok Casino – Springbok Casino welcomes South African players with open arms and a generous casino bonus no deposit of R250 Free Bonus. To collect this promo, enter the provided bonus code in the cashier section after creating an account.
  3. Thunderbolt Casino – Get electrified at Thunderbolt Casino with an exhilarating SA casino no deposit bonus of R300 Free Chip. Redeem the promo code during registration in the casino’s cashier section to claim this thrilling offer.
  4. Yebo Casino – Yebo Casino has a special treat for South African players: a tempting casino bonus no deposit of R350 Free Bonus. Enter the provided bonus code during registration to enjoy this generous offer.
  5. Punt Casino – Punt Casino rolls out the red carpet with a generous SA casino no deposit bonus of R200 Free Chip. Claim this bonus by entering the specified promo code during the registration process and start playing with free chips.
  6. Europa Casino – Europa Casino extends a warm welcome to South African players with a casino bonus no deposit of R100 Free Bonus. Register an account and contact customer support with the provided promo code to receive this exclusive offer.
  7. SilverSands Casino – Experience the shimmer and shine of SilverSands Casino with a thrilling SA casino no deposit bonus of R200 Free Chip. Enter the provided bonus code during registration to enjoy this exciting offer.

Remember to carefully review the terms and conditions of each promo on the respective casino’s website to understand the specific requirements and wagering conditions associated with the online casino bonus no deposit.

Unveiling the Rewards: No Deposit Bonus South Africa

In the realm of online gambling in South Africa, few promotions captivate players as much as the enticing free cash bonuses. These bonuses grant players the exhilarating opportunity to experience real money games without the need to make any deposits. When navigating the online casino landscape in South Africa, you’ll encounter various types of online casino promo no deposit that add an extra layer of excitement to your gaming journey. Here are some common types and how to make the most of them:

  • Free Cash Bonus: This type of no deposit bonus provides players with a specific amount of free bonus cash upon registration. It allows players to explore the casino’s games and potentially win real money. To claim this bonus, you usually need to sign up for an account and enter the provided bonus code, if applicable.
  • Free Spins Bonus: Free spins online casino bonus no deposit are popular among slot enthusiasts. With this bonus, you receive a certain number of free spins on selected slot games. Any winnings from the free spins may be subject to wagering requirements. To claim the free spins bonus, you typically need to register an account and activate the bonus in the specified slot game.
  • Free Play Bonus: Some online casinos offer a free play bonus, which provides players with a certain amount of free credits and a limited time period to play a variety of games. The goal is to accumulate as much winnings as possible within the given time frame. To access this bonus, you usually need to sign up and activate the bonus in your account.
  • Cashback Bonus: While not as common as the other types, some online casinos in South Africa offer a no deposit cashback bonus. This bonus returns a percentage of your losses as bonus funds. It’s a way to provide some consolation and encourage players to continue playing.

To fully capitalize on the abundant no deposit bonuse available in South Africa, it is essential to devote careful attention to comprehending the terms and conditions tied to each offer. Take the time to review crucial aspects such as wagering requirements, game restrictions, maximum withdrawal limits, and any time limitations for utilizing the bonus. By diligently understanding these details, you can fully relish the advantages bestowed by a no deposit bonus while optimizing your potential to achieve tangible winnings.

How to Get a No Deposit Bonus in South Africa

  1. Research

    Begin by researching reputable online casinos that cater to South African players and offer. Look for casinos with positive reviews, a wide range of games, and attractive bonus offers.

  2. Choose a Casino

    Select an online casino that appeals to you and meets your criteria. Check if they offer a no deposit bonus specifically for South African players. Visit the casino’s website to gather more information about their offerings and terms.

  3. Sign Up/Register

    Click on the “Sign Up” or “Register” button on the casino’s website to create a new account. Fill in the required details, such as your name, email address, username, and password. Ensure that you provide accurate information.

  4. Verify Your Account

    Some online casinos may require you to verify your account by submitting identification documents. Follow the casino’s instructions to complete the verification process. This step helps ensure the security and integrity of the casino.

  5. Navigate to Promotions

    Once your account is created and verified, go to the promotions or bonuses section of the online casino. Look for any available no deposit bonuse for South African players. Take note of any bonus codes or specific instructions provided.

  6. Claim the No Deposit Bonus

    Follow the instructions provided to claim the no deposit bonus. This may involve entering a bonus code during the registration process or clicking on a “Claim Now” button. Pay attention to any specific requirements mentioned.

  7. Explore the Games

    Once the no deposit bonus is credited to your account, you can start exploring the casino’s games. Take advantage of the bonus to try out various slots, table games, or other offerings. Familiarize yourself with the casino’s game selection and features.

  8. Fulfill Wagering Requirements

    Be aware of any wagering requirements associated with the no deposit bonus. Wagering requirements specify the number of times you need to play through the bonus amount before you can withdraw any winnings. Follow the casino’s terms and conditions to meet these requirements.

  9. Withdraw Your Winnings

    If you fulfill the wagering requirements and have winnings from the no deposit bonus, you can request a withdrawal. Check the casino’s withdrawal options and follow their process to cash out your winnings. Be aware of any minimum withdrawal limits or additional requirements.

Always remember the significance of thoroughly reviewing and comprehending the terms and conditions associated with both the no deposit bonus and the online casino itself. By doing so, you can ensure a seamless and pleasurable experience throughout your online gaming journey. Embrace the thrill of your no deposit bonus and immerse yourself in the captivating realm of online casino gaming in South Africa. Enjoy every moment and may fortune be on your side!

Pros and Cons of Online Casino No Deposit Bonuses in South Africa


  1. Risk-Free Gaming: SA casino free cash bonuses provide a risk-free gaming experience, allowing players to enjoy online casinos without having to make an initial deposit.
  2. Test the Waters: These online casino free money bonuses offer an opportunity to explore and test the casino’s features, games, and services before committing any real money.
  3. Win Real Money: Despite not requiring a deposit, players have a chance to win real money through free cash bonuses, kick-starting their winnings without any financial commitment.
  4. Variety of Games: SA casino no deposit bonuses often come with free spins or bonus cash, giving players the chance to try out a variety of games without using their own funds.
  5. Skill Development: free cash bonuses serve as a platform for players to develop their skills and understanding of online casino games without any financial risk, helping them improve their gameplay [1].
  6. Comparison Shopping: With a range of online casinos offering free money bonuses in South Africa, players can compare different platforms, their game selections, promotions, and overall experiences to find the best fit.
  7. Strategy Testing: free cash bonuses allow players to experiment with different betting strategies and game approaches, helping them refine their tactics for future gaming sessions.
  8. Attractive Incentive: Online casino no deposit bonuses serve as a compelling incentive for new players to join an online casino, providing an enticing offer to explore the platform and its offerings.


  1. Wagering Requirements: Many no deposit bonus South Africa come with wagering requirements that players must fulfill before being able to withdraw any winnings, which can restrict the withdrawal process.
  2. Maximum Withdrawal Limits: Some SA casino free cash bonuses have maximum withdrawal limits, meaning players may only be able to withdraw up to a certain amount, even if they win more.
  3. Game Restrictions: Certain free money bonuses may be limited to specific games or game categories, limiting players’ choices and preferences when utilizing the bonus.

Terms & Conditions of South African No Deposit Bonus

When it comes to South African no deposit bonus casino brands, it’s crucial to familiarize yourself with the terms and conditions associated with these bonuses.

Claiming Criteria

In order to avail yourself of a casino bonus no deposit in South Africa, players generally need to initiate the process by creating a fresh account and completing the registration steps. It is worth noting that certain casinos may also require bonus codes or opt-ins during the signup procedure. By following these necessary steps, players can unlock the exciting benefits of a no deposit bonus and embark on an exhilarating online casino journey.

Applicable Games

When it comes to free money bonuses, it’s common to encounter restrictions regarding the games they can be utilized for. Different casino brands may impose limitations, confining the bonus to particular slots, table games, or live casino games. It is crucial to review the terms and conditions to gain clarity on which games are eligible for the bonus. By doing so, you can ensure that you make the most of your no deposit bonus while enjoying the designated games within the specified parameters.

Maximum Winnings

When it comes to South African no deposit bonuses, it’s important to be aware that there may be a maximum limit on the winnings that can be withdrawn. This means that even if you happen to win an amount exceeding the specified limit, you will only be able to cash out up to the maximum amount stated in the terms and conditions. It’s crucial to thoroughly review the terms and conditions of the bonus to understand the specific limits in place, ensuring you have a clear understanding of the potential withdrawal restrictions associated with your winnings.

Bonus Expiration Dates

It’s important to note that free money bonuses usually come with an expiration date, requiring them to be utilized within a designated timeframe. Failing to use the bonus within the specified period may result in its forfeiture, potentially leading to the voiding of any associated winnings. To avoid any disappointment, it’s essential to check the expiration date of the bonus and make sure to utilize it before it expires. By being mindful of the timeframe, you can ensure that you make the most of the bonus and safeguard any potential winnings.

Wagering Requirements

Many online casino bonus no deposit offers come with wagering requirements. These requirements indicate the number of times the bonus amount or winnings must be wagered before they can be withdrawn. Higher wagering requirements may make it more challenging to cash out winnings, so be aware of these requirements before claiming a bonus.


No deposit bonuses in South Africa may have specific eligibility criteria, such as being available to new players only or limited to players from certain regions. Ensure that you meet all the requirements to be eligible for the bonus before attempting to claim it.

Additional Terms

Read the terms and conditions carefully for any additional information related to the no deposit bonus. This may include specific restrictions on bonus abuse, withdrawal limits, or payment method restrictions.

Remember that the terms and conditions can vary between different South African no deposit bonus casino brands. It is essential to review and understand the specific terms and requirements of each bonus before accepting it to ensure a smooth and enjoyable gaming experience.

No Deposit Casino Wagering Requirements

When it comes to no deposit bonuses, one important aspect to consider is the wagering requirements associated with them. Wagering requirements are conditions that specify the number of times you must wager the bonus amount or winnings derived from it before you can make a withdrawal. Here’s some key information about wagering requirements for SA casino no deposit bonuses:

  1. What are Wagering Requirements? Wagering requirements, also known as playthrough requirements, are set by online casinos to prevent bonus abuse and ensure fair play. They represent the amount of money you need to wager before being eligible to withdraw any winnings.
  2. How do Wagering Requirements Work? Wagering requirements are usually expressed as a multiplier, such as “30x” or “40x.” This means you must wager the bonus amount or winnings a certain number of times. For example, if you receive a ZAR 100 bonus with 30x wagering requirements, you would need to wager ZAR 3,000 (100 x 30) before being able to withdraw any winnings.
  3. Game Contributions: Different casino games contribute differently towards meeting wagering requirements. Slots typically contribute 100%, meaning each bet made on slots counts in full towards the wagering. However, other games like table games or video poker may have lower contribution percentages, often ranging from 0% to 50%. Be sure to check the terms and conditions to understand how each game contributes to the requirements.
  4. Time Limitations: SA casino no deposit bonuses often come with a time limit within which the wagering requirements must be fulfilled. This time frame can vary, ranging from a few days to several weeks. If the requirements are not met within the specified time, the bonus and any associated winnings may be forfeited.
  5. Importance of Reading Terms and Conditions: It is crucial to carefully read and understand the terms and conditions regarding wagering requirements for no deposit bonuses. Familiarize yourself with the specific requirements, eligible games, and any additional conditions that may apply.
  6. Impact on Withdrawals: Until you meet the wagering requirements, you may not be able to withdraw any winnings associated with the no deposit bonus. Attempting to make a withdrawal before fulfilling the requirements may result in the bonus and winnings being voided.
  7. Varying Wagering Requirements: Wagering requirements can differ between online casinos and specific no deposit bonus offers. Some may have higher or lower requirements, so it’s important to compare different casinos and bonuses to find the most favorable conditions.

Finding the Best No Deposit Casino in South Africa

Points of ViewDescription
Reputation and LicensingLook for online casinos with a strong reputation and valid licenses from reputable regulatory authorities.
Bonus Amount and TermsConsider the bonus amount offered and review the terms and conditions, including wagering requirements.
Game SelectionAssess the variety and quality of games available, including slots, table games, live dealer options, etc.
Payment Methods and SecurityCheck the available payment methods, ensuring they are secure and convenient for South African players.
User Reviews and RatingsRead reviews and ratings from other players to get insights into the overall experience and customer satisfaction.
Mobile CompatibilityVerify if the online casino is compatible with mobile devices, allowing you to play on the go.
Customer SupportEvaluate the quality and responsiveness of customer support, ensuring they can assist you when needed.
Additional PromotionsConsider if the online casino offers additional promotions and rewards beyond the initial no deposit bonus.

Last Words About No Deposit Bonuses Casinos SA

In conclusion, the availability of no deposit bonuses in South Africa provides an excellent opportunity for players to experience the thrill of online gambling without risking their own money. These bonuses, often referred to as SA casino no deposit bonuses or casino bonus no deposit offers, offer various benefits to players. They allow you to explore different online casinos, try out new games, and potentially win real money without making an initial deposit.

However, it’s important to approach these bonuses with caution and be aware of the terms and conditions attached to them. Factors such as wagering requirements, game restrictions, maximum winnings, and bonus expiration dates play a crucial role in determining the value and feasibility of the bonus.

By researching reputable online casinos, comparing their no deposit bonus offers, and understanding the associated terms and conditions, you can make informed decisions and maximize your chances of finding the best online casinos with no deposit bonuses in South Africa.

Remember to read reviews, consider the game selection, payment methods, and overall reputation of the casino. Take advantage of the opportunity to try out different casinos and games, but always gamble responsibly and within your means.

With the right approach and understanding of the no deposit bonus landscape in South Africa, you can embark on an exciting online gambling journey while enjoying the perks of no deposit bonuses. Good luck and may your gaming experience be filled with entertainment and potential winnings!


What is an online casino no deposit bonus?

An online casino no deposit bonus is a promotional offer provided by online casinos to attract new players. It allows players to claim a bonus without having to make a deposit, giving them the opportunity to play games and potentially win real money.

How do I find the best online casinos with no deposit bonuses in South Africa?

To find the best online casinos with no deposit bonuses in South Africa, conduct thorough research, compare different casinos, and consider factors such as bonus amount, wagering requirements, game selection, payment methods, and player reviews. Look for reputable casinos that offer attractive no deposit bonus offers to enhance your gaming experience.

Are no deposit bonuses available in South Africa?

Yes, no deposit bonuses are available in South Africa. Many online casinos catering to South African players offer no deposit bonuses as part of their promotional strategies. These bonuses provide players with a chance to play games without risking their own money.

Can I win real money with an online casino no deposit bonus?

Yes, it is possible to win real money with an online casino no deposit bonus. However, it is important to note that these bonuses often come with certain terms and conditions, such as wagering requirements and maximum withdrawal limits. Fulfilling these requirements is necessary to convert the bonus winnings into real cash.

How do I claim an online casino no deposit bonus?

To claim a no deposit bonus, you typically need to sign up for an account at the casino and follow the specified instructions. Some casinos may require you to enter a bonus code during the registration process or contact customer support to activate the bonus.

Can I use an online casino no deposit bonus on any game?

The eligibility of games for a no deposit bonus varies depending on the terms and conditions set by the casino. Some bonuses may be restricted to specific games or game categories, while others may allow you to use the bonus on a wide range of games. It is important to read the terms and conditions to understand which games are eligible.

Are there any risks or drawbacks associated with online casino no deposit bonuses?

While no deposit bonuses offer exciting opportunities, it’s important to be aware of the associated risks and drawbacks. These may include high wagering requirements, game restrictions, maximum winnings limits, and bonus expiration dates. Additionally, not all casinos offering no deposit bonuses may be trustworthy or reliable, so it’s essential to choose reputable and licensed operators.

Can I claim multiple no deposit bonuses from different online casinos?

Yes, it is possible to claim multiple online casino no deposit from different online casinos. However, it’s important to note that each casino may have its own terms and conditions, including limitations on claiming multiple bonuses. Make sure to read and understand the specific rules for each bonus and casino to ensure compliance.




  • Riaan Nene

    Greetings, I am Riaan Nene, and I have had the privilege of immersing myself in the captivating realm of gambling for the past decade. Throughout my 10-year journey in this industry, I have gained invaluable experience and expertise that have shaped me into a seasoned professional. My fascination with the gambling world ignited when I stepped foot into a bustling casino many years ago. The electrifying atmosphere, the anticipation in the air, and the allure of chance all drew me in like a magnet. From that moment, I knew I had discovered my true passion.